• The Venus of Willendorf


Worshiper Statuettes

• How would you describe the material "diorite".

• The Stele of Hammurabi


Palette of Narmer
What is the subject, style, significance of this work of art? Why is this unique (amidst the other art produced by the ancient Egyptians)?

Queen Hapshetsut
Why is she special?
Explain the nature of her rule - before, during, after...

• How did sculpture from the Egyptian Middle Kingdom differ from the others?
kohl- fancy

Cyclades Islands

• The Treasury of Atreus
-What is the function of this? Dome- beehive tomb
-Describe the manner in which it has been constructed.

• The Palace of Knossos
-Where would one find this Palace today?
-How would you classify / describe a column from this palace? (material, color, shape) Simple, red, black capital. Wood. Tapered at the bottom (thicker at the top) (Minoan sp)

The **//Lion Gate//**
-Describe the type of masonry technique used to span the opening... What kind of arch is this? Post and lintel l---l arch...Corboled arch top pieces are supporting the weight outwardly


• Geometric Greek vases
dipthon krater- guy on bed, people coming to the funeral, professional mourners
geometric vase, registers, not realistic composite views (showing profile, but frontal face) bunch of shapes
Greek columns / capital orders - Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
Doric- basic, no base, meta something
Ionic- Greek,
Corinthian- most fancy- Romans
• What is the name of this building (below)? What special event occurred here?
external image 01GRE-27-01-Erechtheion-Caryatids.jpg
external image 01GRE-27-01-Erechtheion-Caryatids.jpg

The Eructhinan- people are supporting the roof- Ionic order
Statue of a male youth- Kuros Girl- Kor
• What is the term used to describe a Greek statue of a male youth?

• The Kritios Boy, although smaller than 'life-size', is the first example of what?
Movement, contrapposto (opposite positions, weight is equally distributed)
• Discus Thrower (Myron)
external image 053.jpg
external image 053.jpg

Appex of movement- he's not moving( in the middle of moving) Kritios boy has more movement
• Why do we study the nature of Greek sculpture through Roman copies? How does this version differ than the original bronze from Greece?
Romans used marble (better than bronze; even though bronze last longer) bronze, the plastic of the Ancient world... Taste(preference)
Spear bearer- the Cannon, the standard. climax of Greek sculpture (Polyclidis)

Dying Gaul
Into what style of Greek art does this sculpture fall? What characteristics differentiate it from the previous styles?
Depicting an enemy, humility and glory ( Hellenistic)
• What happened during the Peloponnesian War?
Sparta won against Athens
• The land in which the Etruscans settled (mainland Italy) was rich in what substance?
Iron, metals, minerals were in the ground
• The Etruscans, therefore, excelled in what type of hand-wrought area?
• The Etruscan region of Cerveteri contained tombs for the deceased. What is the term used to describe the typical tomb here?

• Describe the material favored by the Etruscans for their figural sculpture.
• Where might one have commonly viewed the figural sculpture created by the Etruscan artists?
somewhat Archaic smile... Generic representation.. Women and men mingling together different from Greek art.
• What material(s) did the Etruscans use to construct their temples?
Mud brick (terracota) wood
• What happened to the Etruscan civilization?
Become a Roman or be destroyeddddd.. so the Romans

Roman aqueducts (such as the one pictured below) are made from the ashlar masonry construction technique. Describe what distinguishes this type of stone masonry from others.
Not perfectly smooth, rusticated
Concrete; organizers
external image roman-aqueduct-segovia-segaq3.jpg
external image roman-aqueduct-segovia-segaq3.jpg

Column of Trajan
external image ColumnOfTrajan.jpg
external image ColumnOfTrajan.jpg

• How was the Roman Tetrarchy represented?


• Explain how the Early Christian "Church" work within the pagan Roman culture?
• What is a "house church" and what purpose did it serve for the Early Christian community?
church in a house. practicing religion in a house, it doesn't look like a Church; so they were tolerated
• What was the purpose / function of the catacombs?
Underground, outskirts. tolerated the Christians to a degree; where they buried their dead
• What does the term "catacomb" literally mean?

• Describe the type of art produced during the 3rd-5th Centuries.

• Hagia Sophia
-Where is this building located?
-Describe the patronage of this building?
-What was the original purpose of the construction?
-What was the key architectural feature first developed in Hagia Sophia?
-Had the original purpose of Hagia Sophia changed during the course of history?

external image HSophia.jpg
external image HSophia.jpg

-The interior of Hagia Sophia has changed drastically throughout history. Describe the original appearance of the interior.

-What type(s) of church plan was used in this structure?

external image hagia_sophia_interior.jpg
external image hagia_sophia_interior.jpg

• What is the function of an iconostasis?

•Describe the significance of Emperor Justinian's placement in the "Ravenna mosaic".

• What region did Byzantium "Christianize"?

• What is meant by the the depiction of Christ as "the Pantokrator"?


•What is the time-frame historians typically refer to as the "Middle Ages"?

• In the Middle Ages, what did many female artists specialize in?

• What area of Western Europe was never colonized by Rome?

Animal forms and interlace patterns can be seen in what form of art?

• What is commonly referred to ad the most important manuscript created by the Hiberno-Saxons?

• Charlemagne

• What is the Bayeux Tapestry and why is it important?


• What happens when two barrel vaults intersect at 90 degrees?

• Whereas the Ancient Romans used concrete to build much of their architectural wonders (especially the vastly-spanned arches, domes, etc.), the architects during the Romanesque time period used...


• Who is credited with creating the Cathedral of St. Denis?

• To whom are many Gothic cathedrals dedicated?

• What type of window was commonly used on the facade of Gothic Cathedrals? Hint: They became a staple in the design of French Gothic Cathedrals.

• Gothic architecture is defined according to different stylistic periods. What is the name of the style that classifies the almost-excessive ornate tracery found in the late period?

Chartres Cathedral

• The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is built upon an important site. Describe why this site is significant and what happened here.


• What was "re-born" during this time?

The fresco - Peaceful Country

• What was the most devastating natural disaster in Europe during the late 1300s?

• Giotto's Enthroned Madonna

• Giotto's fresco cycles in the Arena Chapel depict narratives from what subject? Specify.

The Very Sumptuous Book of Hours
-What is the nature / theme / concept of the book from which this illustration is contained?
-This painting is an example of which style or period?
-Who was the patron of this book?
-In what century were the illustrations of the book painted?

external image october_p.jpg
external image october_p.jpg

• How might you describe the "Medieval narrative method"?

• Botticelli

• Name the individual who denounced humanist philosophy and was also a friend to Botticelli.

• Explain the nature of the famous "competition" for the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery.

• The development of linear perspective is generally credited to whom?

• Masaccio's Holy Trinity

• Explain the importance of Florence during the Early Renaissance.

• Who was the most prominent patron of fifteenth-century Florentine art?

• The Classical principle of contrapposto, or weight shift, was reintroduced into Western art by which sculptor?

Oil painting
-Which region first employed the medium to a great extent?
-When did this occur?

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external image figure+25.jpg

• The above is a detail of Jan van Eyck's work - one of the first examples of oil painting used to its greatest potential...
-The figures on the extremes are...
-The interior figures (Saints John the Baptist and Evangelist) are gray-scale paintings meant to emulate sculpture... what do we call this technique?
-What is the name of the larger work of art?

Rogier van der Weyden

Raphael was known for his classical, simply, harmonious compositions and for capturing the clarity of what he painted. In addition, he also exhibited a special quality with regards to portraiture. Describe this...

• Why is Leonardo's Last Supper in such rough shape today?

• What did Leonardo do, with respect to this composition (The Last Supper), that sets the piece apart from all others?
Hint: Remember what Leonardo said -- that one can learn everything they need to know about an individual by observing their gestures / hands. The actions of the hands reveal the state of one's mind.

• Michelangelo's David depict the figure differently than previous artists. Explain.

• How does Michelangelo's Creation of Adam express the Renaissance interpretation of humanism?

• Who patronize Michelangelo's painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel?

• A painting of the High Renaissance is noted for which kind of compositional structure?

• Pope Paul III convened the Council of Trent in 1545. What was this event a big part of?

• Bronzino (& Mannerism)

17th CENTURY (Baroque & Northern art)

Golden Age of Dutch Art - The 17th Century
-In the wake of the Counter Reformation that swept throughout Europe in the Seventeenth Century, The northern Dutch region maintained religious freedom from which Catholic entity?
-What manifestations did this have on the art of this region, considering the fact that thee major religious practice was Calvinism?

Rembrandt - master of light and shadow
-Question: How does Rembrandt's use of oil painting differ from, say, van Eyck?
-Look at the general characteristics of Rembrandt's work...

• Frans Hals

-Stylistic period (including region) within which he exists.
-Where did Velazquez spend his career as a painter?

• Which artist was deeply affected by the Protestant Reformation and the ideals of Luther? Hint: he painted his self-portraits in the manner of Christ.

• Name some reasons as to why a figure like Caravaggio would have been considered "controversial".

Artemisia Gentileschi -- Women were not given many opportunities to succeed in the realm of the fine arts, due to societal structures, conceptions and the complications associated with the "artist apprenticeship" system. How then, can we explain why the great Artemisia Gentileschi produced a great number of high quality works of art during the Italian Baroque period?

Peter Paul Rubens created a narrative cycle, containing 21 huge allegorical paintings celebrating the life of an important individual. Who was she?


Death of Marat
-Who was Marat?
-Explain the scene taking place and the significance of such a work.
external image Death_of_Marat_by_David.jpg
external image Death_of_Marat_by_David.jpg

The following two paintings are paintings of men of a dignified status. Compare and contrast the two.
King Louis XIV...
external image Louis-XIV-of-France.jpg
external image Louis-XIV-of-France.jpg

Louis XIV
Where did Louis XIV reside? Did he have a nick-name?

-Do you think that the figures depicted intended on these pieces being viewed by others or do you think that they were designed for private consumption? Explain.
external image charles-i-van-dyck.jpg
external image charles-i-van-dyck.jpg

Charles I (Anthony VanDyc
external image figure+22.jpg
external image figure+22.jpg

• This is a painting (above) by the artist Goya...
-From what source is the subject of this painting?
-What is the title?
-To what was the time period does it belong?



-Where was the original Academy founded?
-What purpose / role did the Academy play in the lives of artists?

-What is a salon?

The Realist movement
-Who were the Realists?
-How were they different in their artistic approaches than those that preceded them?
-How were they received?
-Explain the philosophical theory of positive and how it relates to the art of the Realists.

Burial at Ornans (Gustave Courbet)
-Explain why this work fits into the style of "Realism"...
-What is taking place here?
-Why was it considered controversial?
external image BurialatOrnan1.jpg
external image BurialatOrnan1.jpg

Gustave Courbet - Burial at Ornans

The Gleaners (Millet)
-To what period of art would one classify this painting?
-How did Millet organize the composition?
-What significance does this organization play in the message?
external image The+Gleaners.jpg
external image The+Gleaners.jpg

Millet - The Gleaners
-Both Millet and Courbet's incessant desire to record the "real" world around them was echoed in the work of Daumier. His Third Class Carriage (below) is a work expressing such sentiment. How would you further explain "why"?
external image 3class.jpg
external image 3class.jpg

Daumier - Third Class Carriage
Luncheon on the Grass (Edouard Manet)
What year was this painted?
What is the style?
How was this painting received by the public? Describe.
external image Edouard_Manet_Luncheon_on_the_Grass_f.jpg
external image Edouard_Manet_Luncheon_on_the_Grass_f.jpg

• What is a daguerreotype?

-Why were the Impressionists called "the Impressionists"?
-How were they received by the public?
-Did they find favor in the eyes of the French Academy?
-What are the developments that made this style possible?
-What were these artists interested in achieving through this style of art?

-How were the Post-Impressionists different from Impressionists?
-Name 5 artists from this period.
-Which Post-Impressionist elevated still-life painting to an epic level (something of noble status)?
-Who was the Post-Impressionist who, for a period of time, shared a residence with Vincent van Gogh, and was influenced by art objects from Oceania (Tahiti)?
-The artist mentioned above... What did he have to say about the Baroque artist Poussin? Explain how the significance of this statement reflects in his work?





external image figure+12.jpg
external image figure+12.jpg

-Who invented this style of art?

-The art of collage was invented during cubism... what is the specific "type" or sub-style of cubism would this art form fit into?

-For which venue was Picasso's Guernica was painted?

-Describe this style of art?

-What is the style of Surrealism all about?
-What role did literature play in this?

Meret Oppenheim - work entitled Object
-This work is an example of what style of art?
-Why is this work of art unique?
external image fs_oppenheim_object_867_t.jpg
external image fs_oppenheim_object_867_t.jpg

Question: What do the following sculptural works have in common?
-Marcus Aurelius-Gattamelata

• Name the first large-scale use of iron architecture. Who was it designed by?

• Georgia O'Keeffe specialized in paintings of what object(s)?

Question: How does Daumier's Third Class Carriage find a parallel in Dorothy Lange's photography?

• Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty is an example of what type of art?

• Harlem Renaissance - what was it all about?

Print-making processes
-How does an etching differ from an engraving?
-What is the term used to describe both of these processes?
-What is the major difference between these prints and those made from wood blocks?

• Where would one find a giant rock-cut Buddha?

Islamic art: calligraphy, carpets and tapestries

• His series of paintings Migration of the Negro (below) chronicle an important event. Who was the artist and what was the significance of the event?
external image figure+18.jpg
external image figure+18.jpg

• What would you say is the common thread uniting the three works presented below?
external image Fuseli_Nightmare.jpg
external image Fuseli_Nightmare.jpg

Henri Fuseli - The Nightmare

external image goya_sleep.jpg
external image goya_sleep.jpg

Goya - When Reason Sleeps

external image rousseau_gypsy.jpg
external image rousseau_gypsy.jpg

Henri Rousseau (The Gypsy)

• In what area of the world would we find many rock-cut temples? (Spain, Russia, Japan, India)

• What is the complex (below) called? Hint: look at Bath, England...
What is the function of the complex?
external image bath-royal-crescent.jpg
external image bath-royal-crescent.jpg

Traditional Chinese painting formats include all of the following formats except for...
-hanging scrolls
-woodblock prints

• Cindy Sherman - what is the essence of her work and why would it be difficult to show and/or discuss in school?

• Frank Lloyd Wright is a famous architect - this we know... what do art historians call his early buildings, such as the Robie House?

• What are some types of works that would be considered "Post-Modern" art by such a label's standards?


Developments/ Innovations

2. Who did they look to?

3. When was the 1st imp. exhibition?
April 15 to May 15, 1874is the first one and the last one was during the fall of 1885.

4. How did they acquire their "name/ Title"

5. Stylistic characteristics

6. Notable artists/ known for.. characteristics of
A. Renoir ---->
  • Party scenes,
  • Blurry use of lively pastel colors,
  • Bathing females
  • Figures that "well to do"

7. The greatest contribution of the Impressionist movement was.....

French "Realism"

Luncheon on the grass
Manet's painting presented a controversial topic, a nude woman surrounded by fully clothed men. Manet shocked the French public with his statement of freedom. The deliberant use of a large canvas (reserved for historical paintings) with such a forbidden message was rejected by the French Salon

OlympiaManet painting was also controversial to the French public. He portrays a prostitute, instead of a goddess like other painters. The unclothed woman lying in a bed, being presented flowers by her maid (or is this a man) was shocking. It is also shocking that the woman is making direct eye contact with the viewer, making the woman seemingly smug or even bored of her duty.

Courbet addressed social issues by painting what seemed vulgar such as peasants and working conditions of the poor. He painted what was truly there and didn't add glamour when it was not supposed to be there. Courbet shows sympathy for the workers and disgust for the upper class by painting these men with a dignity of their own. They are proud of their work, wanting to work.

GleanersMillet's painting is famous for featuring the what was considered the lowest ranks of rural society in a sympathetic way, however, this was received poorly by the French upper classes. The Salon was unhappy when he presented this painting, saying it glorified the underclass, which was deemed unacceptable.

3rd Class Carriage
Daumier showed his view of the social status of people during this time period. The lower class rode in the 3rd class carriage, which more or so defined them as the poor, unsuccessful portion of French society. He captured the effects of industrialization in the mid-nineteenth- century Paris.

Life of Christ

Baptism of Jesus by Khaddisha Arnold

external image aACV9QsHb2ocjrYSUpX75AlmZnlfUQjOBqX0HFcA73sfeTtNt9PJvk9o5HR7zV7fnGBVikCO95oT0OHUHHXOcMgAnQ external image 270px-Baptism-of-Christ-xx-Francesco-Alban.JPG


John the Baptist preached a "baptism with water", not of forgiveness but for penance of repentance for the remission of sins. He declared himself as the person who would baptize with the Holy spirit and with fire.Jesus goes to the Jordan River and is baptized at Qasr al- Ahud, which means the Jew's Castle. The Baptism is completed with the heavens opening. a dove descent of the Holy Spirit. Next a voice from Heaven saying. "This is my beloved Son with whom I am pleased with.
This marks the beginning of Jesus's ministry.


1. The dove represents the
-Holy Spirit- in Christian art
- Rebirth ( Noah sending a dove to find new land%3Proxy-Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age=0 2Fspan>
- Nation of Israel

2. Idea of Baptism
- being immersed in water
- sacrament and ordinance of Jesus Christ
-necessary for salvation

3. Angels
- crucifixion of Jesus
- Purity of Jesus/ water he was being baptized in
- heavens- angels were ascending and descending